The 3Rs

Reduce, Refine, Replace.

Scientists place a high priority on the 3Rs – reduction, replacement, and refinement.

The 3Rs means reducing the number of animals needed in any given study, replacing animals with other models whenever possible and refining procedures to involve the fewest number of animals while still giving valid results. Medical progress requires animal testing and research because there is no complete replacement for the whole living system. In recent years, a number of non-animal procedures have been developed for certain types of animal testing and research, and that number continues to grow.


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