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Nearly every medicine, medical device, surgical procedure and therapy we have today has depended on animal testing and research. Animal research is one of the first steps in medical discovery.

“There are diseases in which you vaccinate someone, they get infected with what you are trying to protect them with, and you actually enhance the infection. You can get a good feel for that in animal models,” the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Dr. Anthony Fauci, said during a White House briefing on March 26.

Contrary to the claims of animal rights groups, animal models have been and will continue to be crucial to medical development and public health. 

The FBR team rounded up articles in the news in recent weeks on potential treatments and potential vaccines for the new coronavirus, as well as other COVID-19 developments, and the animal models used to develop them. In addition, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News put together a list (found here) of potential COVID-19 treatments in development.

Animal Research on the Front Lines

July 6: ‘Daewoong to stage clinical trials of COVID-19 treatment using stem cells,’ Aju Business Daily

“Daewoong Pharmaceutical, a major bioengineering company in South Korea, will carry out the first phase of clinical trials in Indonesia for COVID-19 respiratory symptom treatment using mesenchymal stem cells after drug efficacy tests using animal models have identified anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects,” the article said.

July 5: ‘Mice hold key in Covid vaccine rat race,’ The Times of India

July 4: ‘Covaxin safety has already been well-established from animal tests: Bharat Biotech MD,’ The Financial Express

July 4: ‘Researchers launch large trials of COVID-19 candidate vaccines,’ VOA Learning English

“Animal research suggests COVID-19 vaccines could prevent serious disease but may not completely block infection. One study showed vaccinated animals avoided being infected with pneumonia but had some virus left in their noses and throats,” the article noted.

July 3: ‘Bharat Biotech has passed mandated protocols, animal testing and is now in clinical development of Covid vaccine, Dr Krishna Ella tells Firstpost,’ Firstpost

July 3: ‘Coronavirus vaccine: India’s second COVID-19 vaccine produced by Zydus Cadila cleared for human trials,’ The Times of India

“The company has submitted data to DCGI based on animal trial, they conducted. Animals like- mice, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats were used and these animals developed antibodies against the virus,” mentioned a report.

July 2: ‘Monkeys infected with novel coronavirus developed short-term immunity,’ Agence France-Presse

July 2: ‘Horseshoe crab blood is key to making a COVID-19 vaccine—but the ecosystem may suffer,’ National Geographic

July 2: ‘Novavax SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate shows promise in animal models,’ News Medical

July 2: ‘Primary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques,’ Science

July 2: ‘HBCU scientist working on COVID-19 antiviral,’ The American South

“Dr. Donald Alcendor, an associate professor of microbiology and immunology at Meharry Medical College, began working on the COVID-19 antiviral in April and anticipates it is four to six weeks away from animal toxicity testing,” the report said.

July 2: ‘UH professor working on COVID-19 vaccine,’ The Daily Cougar

“We have already completed the first round of preclinical animal testing and the results were quite encouraging,” University of Houston biology and biochemistry professor Zhang said. “I think there is no doubt that more research is needed for any vaccine development.”

July 2: ‘This coronavirus mutation has taken over the world. Scientists are trying to understand why,’ The Washington Post

“Scientists may be able to rule out these alternative explanations with more rigorous statistical analyses or a controlled experiment in an animal population,” WaPo reported.

July 1: ‘How lab animals have fared in the coronavirus crisis,’ DW

July 1: ‘The essential role of animal studies in expediating medical research to battle the COVID-19 pandemic,’ Fox Rothschild LLP

July 1: ‘Anti-viral and anti-inflammatory response: GoldenBiotech’s antroquinonol receives FDA approval on COVID-19 Phase 2 trial in USA,’ PR Newswire

“Antroquinonol was found to reduce viral nucleic acid replication and viral protein synthesis in both cell and animal experiments,” the press release said.

July 1: ‘Georgia dog tests positive for virus that causes COVID-19,’ The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

June 30: ‘Inovio COVID-19 vaccine data highlight questions about antibody versus T cell responses,’ BioCentury

“Inovio … said INO-4800 provided ‘full protection’ from SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lungs of mice,” the article said.

June 30: ‘Fauci says “there is no guarantee” for a safe COVID-19 vaccine, but he’s “cautiously optimistic,”’ CNN

“It’s extremely important to have safe and effective vaccines available for everyone in this country,” Fauci said in opening remarks before a Senate committee on June 30. He emphasized that researchers have made significant headway on experimental vaccines and therapies for COVID-19 thanks to preclinical vaccine and therapy trials with animal models.

June 30: ‘How will COVID-19 transform veterinary practice?’ DVM 360

June 30: ‘INOVIO reports positive interim Phase I data for COVID-19 DNA vaccine, joins “Warp Speed” primate study,’ Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

June 30: ‘“Going to be very disturbing”: Fauci warns coronavirus cases could reach 100K a day,’ NPR

“But we are cautiously optimistic, looking at animal data and the early preliminary data, that we will at least know the extent of efficacy sometime in the winter and early part of next year. … Hopefully, there will be doses available by the beginning of next year,” he said.

June 30: ‘Coronavirus vaccine candidate found 94% effective,’ Precision Vaccinations

“In addition to positive interim Phase 1 data, INO-4800 has been shown to protect mice in SARS-CoV-2 viral challenge studies, where vaccination with INO-4800 prevented viral replication in the lungs of animals challenged with SARS-CoV-2,” the article said.

June 30: ‘INOVIO announces positive interim Phase 1 data for INO-4800 vaccine for COVID-19,’ PR Newswire

“In addition to positive interim Phase 1 data, INO-4800 has been shown to protect mice in SARS-CoV-2 viral challenge studies, where vaccination with INO-4800 prevented viral replication in the lungs of animals challenged with SARS-CoV-2,” the press release said.

June 30: ‘Health officials face questions on virus vaccine,’ The Associated Press

Dr. Anthony Fauci testified during a Senate committee hearing and mentioned animal data.

June 30: ‘Test designed to detect equine disease shows promise for COVID-19,’ The Horse

June 30: Studying SARS-CoV-2 spread in poultry and domestic animals,’ The Poultry Site

June 30: ‘Inovio Pharmaceuticals vaccine ‘deemed safe’ in testing,’ TheStreet

“In addition, Inovio said that in a preclinical animal study, INO-4800 provided full protection against coronavirus replication in the lungs in mice that were infected with the virus,” the article said.

June 30: ‘COVID-19 lockdowns are a unique chance to study human-wildlife interactions, researchers say,’ The World

June 29: ‘India’s first COVID-19 vaccine candidate COVAXIN gets approval for human trials,’ Business Today

“Those within the industry say the company seems to have achieved vaccine stabilisation and completion of animal studies in record time considering that it was only on May 9, 2020 that the ICMR announced collaboration with Bharat Biotech ‘to develop a fully indigenous vaccine for COVID-19 using the virus strain isolated at ICMR’s National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune,'” the article said.

June 29: ‘Canadian-made COVID-19 vaccine ready to start human trials soon,’ CTV News

“In earlier animal testing of the vaccine, which is produced in tobacco plants, mice began producing a positive antibody response within 10 days of receiving a single dose, researchers said in May,” the report noted.

June 29: ‘Vaxart oral COVID-19 vaccine joins Trump’s “Warp Speed,” ramps up manufacturing capacity,’ Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

“On April 30, Vaxart disclosed that it obtained positive preclinical results for its COVID-19 vaccine candidates, with ‘several’ of the candidates generating immune responses in all tested animals after a single dose,” the report said.

June 29: ‘Researchers looking for to grasp the connection between SARS-CoV-2 and a lethal immune system malfunction,’ Home Health Choices

“Between the preclinical data from animal models and the retrospective data from humans, we felt there was good rationale to test this concept with COVID-19,” said Chetan Bettegowda, a professor of neurosurgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

June 29: ‘Swine flu strain with human pandemic potential increasingly found in pigs in China,’ Science

June 29: ‘Does PFAS exposure add to COVID-19 risk? Shaheen, senators push to find out,’ Seacoastonline.com

New Hampshire Democratic Sen. Jeanne “Shaheen and the other senators also noted that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) issued a ‘Statement on Potential Intersection between PFAS Exposure and COVID-19’ earlier this month,” the report said.

“This statement indicated that ‘there is evidence from human and animal studies that PFAS exposure may reduce antibody responses to vaccines … and may reduce infectious disease resistance,’” Shaheen and other senators wrote.

June 29: ‘Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine status check: Oxford vaccine most advanced, says WHO; Sanofi accelerates trials,’ The Indian Express

“The Chulalongkorn project employs new mRNA vaccine technology and the team expects final results from the animal-testing stage in the next two weeks,” the article said.

June 28: ‘Summer may decide fate of leading shots in vaccine race,’ The Associated Press

“Animal research suggests COVID-19 vaccines could prevent serious disease but may not completely block infection. One study that dripped the coronavirus into monkeys showed vaccinated animals avoided pneumonia but had some virus lurking in their noses and throats,” the report said.

June 28: ‘University of Iowa researchers develop mice model to study COVID-19 symptoms,’ The Daily Iowan

June 28: ‘US company with Israeli roots to test COVID-19 vaccine on humans by August,’ The Jerusalem Post

The company had successful trials with mice, rats, rabbits and pigs.

June 27: ‘Colorado State researchers scaling up production of potential COVID-19 vaccine,’ The Denver Post

“A possible vaccine for the new coronavirus has shown good enough results in animals to attract federal money to take it to the next level, but the Colorado State University researchers involved caution that it has many hurdles to clear before going to the public. CSU’s labs have produced a small amount of a vaccine and tested it on hamsters, said Ray Goodrich, executive director of the university’s Infectious Disease Research Center,” the article said. “The hamsters have formed an immune defense and don’t get sick if they’re exposed to the virus, but not everything that looks promising in small animals works as well in humans.”

June 27: ‘What’s special about Tonix Pharma and Southern Research’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate?’ The Pharma Letter

“The research is part of an ongoing and broader collaboration between Tonix and Southern Research to develop and conduct animal testing of Tonix’ TNX-1800, which is a live replicating virus vaccine designed to protect against COVID-19. The data will support the interpretation of animal trial results with TNX-1800, which are expected in the fourth quarter of 2020 and subsequent human trials,” the post said.

June 27: ‘Bats carry coronaviruses but don’t get sick. Could their secret help us fight COVID-19?’ The Philadelphia Inquirer

June 27: ‘SDSU and UCSD developing low-cost, easy-to-make ventilators for COVID-19 patients,’ The San Diego Union-Tribune

SDSU Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Kevin “Wood has been in touch with physicians in Tijuana and officials at COFEPRIS (Mexico’s equivalent of the FDA) about getting the device approved for use in Mexico. That will likely involve additional animal experiments, he says,” the article said.

June 26: ‘Local virus jab shows promise in animal tests,’ Bangkok Post

June 26: ‘Modeling harmony: Learning from preclinical coordination of COVID-19 countermeasures,’ BioCentury

“There was never a coordination to this level, where we would be using a master protocol and harmonizing as much as we can across centers with shared controls,” said Jay Rappaport, a leader of ACTIV’s nonhuman primate work.

June 26: ‘Vaxart’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate tapped for Operation Warp Speed primate study,’ BioSpace

June 26: ‘U of O scientist seeking edible vaccine for COVID-19,’ CBC News

University of Ottawa plant biologist Allyson “MacLean’s work will be tested on mice in collaboration with John Bell of the Ottawa Health Research Institute,” the post said.

June 26: ‘Deadly animal diseases can jump to humans. Is vaccinating wildlife the answer?’ Discover Magazine

June 26: ‘Vaxart’s COVID-19 vaccine selected for the US government’s Operation Warp Speed,’ Globe Newswire

The company’s vaccine is in a nonhuman primate study.

June 26: ‘A little-known biotech working on a COVID-19 vaccine has surged 304% in 2 days — and it just said it was picked for the US government’s Operation Warp Speed program (VXRT),’ Markets Insider

“The firm said that its oral COVID-19 vaccine candidate would be involved in a nonhuman primate challenge study and that it was ‘the only oral vaccine being evaluated’ in the program,” the article said.

June 26: ‘COVID-19: Could gut bacteria be involved?’ Medical News Today

“Further to this, [researchers] explain that in mice, ‘removal of certain gut bacteria by antibiotic[s] leads to increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection in [the] lungs,’” the article said.

June 26: ‘Researchers continue progress on Colorado COVID-19 vaccine candidate,’ Mountain West News Bureau

“In those animals that did not receive the vaccine, we saw high levels of virus present in the lungs, present in the trachea, present in samples that we took from various organs within the body. In the groups that were vaccinated, there’s no evidence of adverse effects and no evidence the disease has actually been occurring,” said Ray Goodrich, director of the Infectious Disease Research Center at Colorado State University.

June 25: ‘Promising results mean coronavirus vaccine trial could start by August,’ HealthDay News

“Animal studies of a potential COVID-19 vaccine have been so encouraging that researchers plan to speed up testing of the vaccine in humans,” the article said.

June 25: ‘Two doses of Oxford University coronavirus vaccine tested on pig,’ Oxford Mail

June 25: ‘Use of statins linked to lower death rate in COVID-19 patients: Study,’ Press Trust of India

“According to the researchers, statins may serve such a purpose because these drugs slow the progression of lung injury in animals, improve immune cell responses, and strongly reduce inflammation, which is likely responsible for severe Covid-19 complications such as organ damage,” the article said.

June 25: ‘The race for a COVID-19 vaccine: What’s ahead,’ Scope

June 25: ‘Coronavirus: How long does it really take to get a vaccine ready? We explain to you the process,’ The Times of India

“Only if a certain vaccine surpasses the animal testing phase is it allowed to proceed to clinical trials on humans,” the article said.

June 25: ‘Coronavirus vaccines are coming, but when will they arrive?’ USC News

“It usually takes about two years to bring a new drug to market, even after large clinical trials are underway, although priority drugs can advance faster, she said. It’s an elaborate process, involving lab tests, animal experiments and human trials, plus ensuring that adequate production facilities, quality control and distribution chains are in place,” the article said.

June 24: ‘COVID-19 vaccine candidate proceeds to animal testing,’ Kazan Federal University

June 24: ‘Mounting clues suggest the coronavirus might trigger diabetes,’ Nature

“The virus also attacked pancreatic organoids that had been transplanted into mice, and cells in liver organoids. … The organoid study[8] adds strength to the argument that SARS-CoV-2 might cause or worsen diabetes, but the paper itself is not enough to prove the link, says [scientist Abd] Tahrani,” the article said.

June 24: ‘Coronavirus: “Significant step” in development of vaccine for animals,’ The Independent

June 24: ‘Duke researchers discuss timeline for COVID-19 vaccine, clinical trials,’ WRAL

“One Duke researcher in Singapore who is working on a vaccine said they are in the animal testing phase right now, but hope to move to clinical trials soon,” the report said.

June 23: ‘Could we get a vaccine for cats before people? Two potential COVID-19 animal treatments are shown to eliminate the virus in lab tests,’ Daily Mail

June 23: ‘Progress in monoclonal antibodies for the treatment and prevention-of Covid-19,’ Forbes

“The antibodies were introduced in the mice 12 hours after the viral challenge. The experiment showed that the antibody treatment reduced the amount of virus in the animals by 32.8% for one of the antibodies and 26% for the other, when compared to a control group three days post-infection,” the article said. “The animals treated with each antibody also had fewer lung lesions than the placebo control animals.”

June 23: ‘Nearly 150 potential coronavirus vaccines are being developed globally,’ Newsweek

“The studies demonstrated that vaccination with INO-4800 generated robust binding and neutralizing antibody as well as T cell responses in mice and guinea pigs,” Inovio Pharmaceuticals said in a statement.

June 23: ‘ACE2 and TMPRSS2 variation in savanna monkeys (Chlorocebus spp.): Potential risk for zoonotic/anthroponotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and a potential model for functional studies,’ PLOS One

June 23: ‘Pig trial of AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine shows promise with two shots,’ Reuters

June 23: ‘Hamsters protected from COVID-19 with convalescent serum; develops immunity: Study,’ Science Times

June 23: ‘Scientists make step forward in development of COVID-19 animal vaccines,’ University of Plymouth

June 22: ‘U of G study focusing on risk of COVID-19 to pets,’ GuelphToday

June 22: ‘Reassuring news on the Oxford vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2,’ News Medical

“In this new study, the research group from The Pirbright Institute, the Jenner Institute of the University of Oxford, University of Surrey, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Harwell Oxford and Public Health England decided to test the immunogenicity of either one or two doses of AZD1222 vaccine in mice and pigs in order to inform clinical development additionally,” the article said.

June 22: ‘Syrian hamsters as a small animal model for SARS-CoV-2 infection and countermeasure development,’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

June 22: ‘Thai trials of COVID-19 vaccine reach make-or-break stage,’ Reuters

“Thai scientists administered a second dose of an experimental COVID-19 vaccine to monkeys on Monday, looking for another positive response to enable clinical trials in humans as early as October,” the report said.

June 22: ‘Monkeys, baboons to be used for COVID-19 vaccine study,’ SBG San Antonio

June 22: ‘Hamsters develop protective immunity to COVID-19 and are protected by convalescent sera,’ University of Wisconsin–Madison

June 22: ‘Thailand’s COVID-19 vaccine trial on monkeys successful: Minister,’ Xinhua News Agency

June 20: ‘Corona battle: IVRI in the forefront, testing both human and animal samples,’ Hindustan Times 

June 20: ‘Antibodies from convalescent plasma protect against COVID-19,’ The Hindu

“A team of scientists led by Dennis R. Burton from the Scripps Research Institute has discovered that neutralising antibodies present in the blood of COVID-19 infected who have recovered offers powerful protection against novel coronavirus in animals,” the article said.

June 19: ‘In China’s vaccine race, shortage of monkeys and weekends,’ Agence France-Presse

June 19: ‘Cats and dogs “could spark a second wave of coronavirus cases” experts now warn,’ Daily Mirror

June 19: ‘Pirbright: SARS-CoV-2 has ability to enter animal cells in lab setting,’ Farm Journal’s PORK

June 19: ‘Wildlife trade spreads coronaviruses as animals get to market,’ The New York Times

June 19: ‘People probably caught coronavirus from minks. That’s a wake-up call to study infections in animals, researchers say,’ The Washington Post

June 18: ‘Expert advice on recovering and resuming animal research,’ Charles River Laboratories

June 18: ‘Could our pets trigger a second wave of COVID-19? Scientists warn that animals could become “reservoirs” of the virus even after it is eradicated in humans,’ Daily Mail

June 18: ‘Measles origin finding could inform COVID-19 research,’ Medical Xpress

“Alongside the findings published in Science, Australian evolutionary experts from the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne have published a complementary Perspective, proposing that similarly refining research about when COVID-19 and other zoonotic diseases emerged will assist in understanding how such pathogens jump from animals to humans,” the article said.

June 18: ‘Monoclonal antibody against COVID-19 enters clinical trial,’ Medical Xpress

“This is also the first clinical trial in the world of therapeutic mAb in healthy people after evaluation in a non-human primate model,” the report said.

June 18: ‘SARS-CoV-2 transmission to animals: Monitoring needed to mitigate risk,’ Medical Xpress

June 18: ‘First genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals genes that control SARS-CoV-2 infection,’ News Medical

“In order to identify host genes indispensable for cell survival in response to SARS-CoV-2, this group of researchers decided to use the African green monkey cell line Vero-E6, which is highly amenable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus-induced cytopathic effects,” the article said.

June 18: ‘Tonix and Southern Research to study immune responses to COVID-19,’ Pharmaceutical Technology

“The partners formed an alliance in March this year to develop a vaccine against Covid-19 using Tonix’s horsepox vaccine platform. They agreed to develop and conduct animal testing of TNX-1800, a live modified horsepox virus vaccine formulated for percutaneous administration,” the article noted.

June 18: ‘RI state veterinarian: “Small risk” owners can infect pets with COVID-19,’ WPRI

June 17: ‘Scientists isolate powerful SARS-CoV-2 -neutralizing antibodies from COVID-19 patients,’ News Medical

“Preliminary results in animal studies have so far proven successful,” the article said.

June 17: ‘Cows help with COVID-19 treatment, no bull,’ NPR

June 17: ‘How humanity unleashed a flood of new diseases,’ The New York Times

“What do Covid-19, Ebola, Lyme and AIDS have in common? They jumped to humans from animals after we started destroying habitats and ruining ecosystems,” the story said.

June 17: ‘Off-the-shelf tool for making mouse models of COVID-19,’ University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine

June 17: ‘S. Korea to conduct tests of COVID-19 vaccine, treatment candidates on monkeys this month,’ Yonhap News Agency

June 16: ‘Beating back the coronavirus: Harvard researchers look for a cure,’ Boston Herald

“Wyss [Institute] researchers have already identified promising compounds that are currently being tested by collaborating labs in human organ chip technologies and animal models, and the team is continuing to evaluate many more drugs,” the report said.

June 16: ‘FDA cautions pet owners about infecting their pets in new video,’ CNN

June 16: ‘Human trials expected to start next month for COVID-19 treatment derived from cows’ blood,’ CNN

June 16: ‘New evidence that malaria drug has no antiviral effect on COVID-19,’ Knowridge

“In a new study, researchers examined the antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine in macaques (a type of monkey) infected with the COVID-19 virus, used alone or in combination with drug azithromycin,” the report said.

June 16: ‘Immune status could determine efficacy of COVID-19 therapies,’ Nature

“In cells and animal models, SARS-CoV-2 induced abnormally low levels of transcripts downstream of type I and type III interferons, juxtaposed with high levels of cytokines such as IL-6, Benjamin tenOever, of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and his colleagues recently reported,” the article said.

June 16: ‘Researchers identify potent antibody cocktail to treat COVID-19,’ ScienceDaily

“The study demonstrates the rapid process of isolating, testing and mass-producing antibody therapies against any infectious disease by using both genetically engineered mice and plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients,” the press release said.

June 16: ‘Developing the coronavirus vaccine supply chain,’ Supply Chain Dive

“After lab testing, researchers move to animal testing and ultimately to humans,” the article said.

June 15: ‘Scripps scientists: mutation makes coronavirus more infectious,’ CBS12

“Our data certainly implies that it will be more transmissible, but more animal experiments will be necessary,” Dr. Hyeryun Choe said.

June 15: ‘Isolation of potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and protection from disease in a small animal model,’ Science

June 15: ‘Studies in humanized mice and convalescent humans yield a SARS-CoV-2 antibody cocktail,’ Science

June 15: ‘Super-potent human antibodies protect against COVID-19 in animal tests,’ Scripps Research

June 15: ‘Indonesian COVID-19 vaccines to undergo strict human, animal testing,’ The Jakarta Post

“Eijkman Institute director Amin Soebandrio said animal testing was to ensure that the vaccine’s antigens could form antibodies in humans, which could help protect them from COVID-19. … Animal rights organizations have voiced their objections to animal testing despite researchers ensuring that they will adhere to ethical norms,” the article said.

June 15: ‘Search for COVID-19 vaccine includes animal tests,’ VOA Learning English

June 14: ‘Hydroxychloroquine ineffective in animal SARS-CoV-2 infection,’ News Medical

June 14: ‘Coronaviruses extremely widespread in wildlife trade: Study,’ The Sydney Morning Herald

June 13: ‘Future COVID-19 treatments made possible by animal testing,’ Health ThoroughFare

June 13: ‘The race to find a COVID-19 vaccine: The INO-4800 study participation at the University of Pennsylvania,’ TrialSite News

“INO-4800 evidence has been well-tolerated first in preclinical studies in mice, and then in the first cohort of 40 participants in the Phase I stage of the study,” the article said.

June 12: ‘As pressure for vaccine builds, regulators may face difficult decision,’ ABC News

“Moderna Inc., which is developing what is considered to be the lead candidate, for example, was given permission to begin testing in humans before waiting until testing in animals was complete. Animal testing is ongoing,” ABC reported.

June 12: ‘Genetically engineered lab mice to boost COVID-19 vaccine and research: Experts,’ International Business Times UK

June 12: ‘Researchers focus on COVID-19 virus in animals,’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

June 12: ‘Latin American scientists join the coronavirus vaccine race: “No one’s coming to rescue us,”’ Nature

University of Sao Paulo immunologist Gustavo Cabral de Miranda’s “group is starting animal testing, and some other COVID-19 vaccine candidates in preclinical evaluation are following a similar approach,” the article said.

June 12: ‘Hydroxychloroquine shows no antiviral effect on SARS-Cov-2 in non-human primate models,’ News Medical

June 12: ‘Moderna COVID-19 vaccine appears to clear safety hurdle in mouse study,’ Reuters

June 12: ‘NC A&T, WSSU each receive $1 million to fight COVID-19,’ Triad Business Journal

“N.C. A&T said it plans to use the funding for multiple projects, from studies in both food and animal testing, affordable fever detection in K-12 schools, ways to cut down death rates among the elderly in assisted living facilities and the development of a nanoparticle that can kill the virus,” the article said.

June 12: ‘LSU working on “unique” COVID-19 vaccine; applying for expedited funding,’ WBRZ

“We believe that animal studies, including mice and monkeys, will show that the LSU patented vaccine is much more efficacious in conferring long-term responses to the virus,” Dr. Gus Kousoulas said.

June 11: ‘Can new drug help speed up recovery from COVID-19?’ CGTN

“Remdesivir is an antiviral medication developed initially by U.S. biopharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences to treat Ebola. It wasn’t effective, but during animal testing it had shown promise treating SARS and MERS, both of which are coronaviruses,” the report noted.

June 11: ‘COVID-19 vaccine from China’s Sinopharm clears animal tests,’ FierceBiotech

June 11: ‘Future COVID-19 treatments could be thanks to cows, llamas, and pangolins,’ Inverse

June 11: ‘Immunity to the coronavirus remains a mystery. Scientists are trying to crack the case,’ STAT News

“But with animals, researchers can ‘challenge’ those that are vaccinated or have had an initial infection to see if they can ward the virus off — which is what recent studies in monkeys demonstrated. Scientists found that the animals generated neutralizing antibodies after they first contracted the virus or when they were given experimental vaccines, and that the higher the level of the antibodies the monkeys had (the higher the ‘titer,’ in scientific parlance), the more protected they were against the pathogen when scientists sprayed a second dose into their noses,” STAT noted.

June 11: ‘Mouse model of COVID-19, key in accelerating research, developed by Washington U.,’ St. Louis Post-Dispatchwtv

June 11: ‘An animal model of COVID-19 is now available,’ The Economist

June 11: ‘Potential COVID-19 vaccine from China shows promise in animal trials,’ The Hill

June 11: ‘UConn researcher talks vaccine realities in an unprecedented time,’ UConn Communications

“This is a significant concern because despite many years of research on other human coronaviruses such as SARS‑CoV and MERS‑CoV, no vaccines of any kind have been approved. Another major concern is that some experimental vaccine studies in animal models suggest that insufficient protective immunity against coronaviruses such as SARS‑CoV may induce enhanced susceptibility to respiratory disease,” UConn vaccine researcher Paulo Verardi said. “In other words, inadequate or weak vaccines may not only lead to poor protection but also to vaccine-enhanced disease in COVID‑19 patients.”

June 10: ‘Mice can’t catch COVID-19, so a UA lab is making new kind of mouse,’ Arizona Republic

June 10: ‘A SARS-CoV-2 infection model in mice demonstrates protection by neutralizing antibodies,’ Cell

June 10: ‘Generation of a broadly useful model for COVID-19 pathogenesis, vaccination, and treatment,’ Cell

“It is critical that vaccines and therapeutics be developed very rapidly. Mice, the ideal animal for assessing such interventions, are resistant to SARS-CoV-2,” the article’s summary said. “Here, we overcome this difficulty by exogenous delivery of human ACE2 with a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5-hACE2).”

June 10: ‘New COVID-19 “mouse model” can speed the search for drugs and vaccines, researchers say,’ Fox News

June 10: ‘Ending an epidemic,’ Harvard Magazine

“In an experiment led by Castle professor of medicine and professor of immunology Dan Barouch, animals exposed to the virus a second time five weeks later developed no clinically observable symptoms and displayed immunologic control of the disease,” the article said.

June 10: ‘Veterinary labs continue to support COVID-19 testing,’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

June 10: ‘Vaccine makers hedge bets on which one will emerge as effective and safe,’ NPR

“We have a lot of confidence based on what we’ve see so far based on our animal modeling that the vaccine will work,” said Gregory Glenn, president of research and development at Novavax.

June 10: ‘Daewoong finds niclosamide effective against COVID-19 in animal tests,’ Pharmaceutical Technology

June 10: ‘Potential COVID-19 vaccine from China shows promise in animal tests,’ Reuters

June 10: ‘Study: Remdesivir prevented lung damage in monkeys infected with COVID-19,’ RTTNews

June 10: ‘COVID-19 mouse model will speed search for drugs, vaccines,’ Washington University School of Medicine

June 9: ‘Novavax announces high neutralizing antibody titers in COVID-19 vaccine,’ BioCentury

“In a June 2 presentation, Novavax showed that NVX CoV2373 induced animals to produce neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and that titers increased at least eightfold following a second vaccination. The company also showed that Matrix-M enhances immunogenicity,” the article noted.

June 9: ‘Mini-organs push along Covid-19 and other virus research’ Knowable Magazine

“Organoids can do a lot — but not everything, [Josef] Penninger [a medical geneticist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver] acknowledges: ‘This will not replace animal models,”’ the article said.

June 9: ‘LegoChem licenses in COVID-19 treatment candidates,’ Korea Biomedical Review

“When judged based on animal test results, candidates introduced through this technology transfer are likely to be developed as therapeutic agents that are effective against various viruses that have undergone mutation,” LegoChem Bioscience CEO Kim Yong-joo said.

June 9: ‘Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2,’ Nature

June 9: ‘Gilead’s remdesivir prevents lung damage in COVID-19 study on monkeys,’ Reuters

June 9: ‘South Korea’s Daewoong Pharmaceutical says anti-parasitic drug effective against coronavirus in animal tests,’ Reuters

June 9: ‘Coronavirus rips through Dutch mink farms, triggering culls to prevent human infections,’ Science

June 9: ‘If approved, COVID-19 vaccine patch could eliminate painful shot,’ Scripps Media

“Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center have created a fingertip-sized skin patch that is also showing promising results in animal testing,” the article said.

June 9: ‘Can a vaccine for COVID-19 be developed in record time?’ The New York Times

The Times held a virtual round table discussion with a virologist, a vaccine scientist, an immunologist and oncologist, a biotech scientist and inventor, and a former head of the Food and Drug Administration.

“An ideal animal model is one that reproduces the human disease as closely as possible — in which, for example, clinical signs resembling symptoms in humans are observed, virus replication is observed in similar organs, immune response mirrors that in humans and so on. In addition, an animal model is often used to demonstrate whether a virus can be transmitted from an infected to an uninfected animal,” said Susan Weiss, a microbiology professor at the University of Pennsylvania. “Scientists use animal models to understand how the virus causes disease.”

June 9: ‘With an internet of animals, scientists aim to track and save wildlife,’ The New York Times

June 9: ‘Update: China Focus: Chinese researchers publish inactivated COVID-19 vaccine’s effect on animals,’ Xinhua News Agency

June 8: ‘Niclosamide proves effective against COVID-19 in Daewoong’s animal test,’ Business Korea

June 8: ‘Experts optimistic in search for COVID-19 vaccine,’ HealthDay News

Animal research is an important part of the vaccine testing process.

June 8: ‘Two cats are first US pets to be sickened with COVID-19,’ HealthDay News

June 8: ‘Does CSF antibody testing confirm coronavirus in the brain?’ Medscape Medical News

“It’s not clear how the virus invades the brain, said [Dr. Karima] Benameur. Some speculate it could be through the olfactory nerve, which might explain why some patients lose their sense of taste and/or smell,”  the article said. “Benameur noted that animal research shows that when the virus is injected into nose fibers, it can travel to the brain.”

June 8: ‘The race for a coronavirus vaccine runs on horseshoe crab blood,’ Smithsonian Magazine

June 8: ‘For experts who study coronaviruses, a grim vindication,’ Undark Magazine

“Scientists had for years been finding viral strains in bats and other animals that were genetically similar to the virus behind the SARS epidemic. But sequence data has its limits,” the article said.

June 7: ‘The next pandemic is coming – and sooner than we think, thanks to changes to the environment,’ Australian Broadcasting Corporation

“Nearly all emerging pathogens like COVID-19 come from ‘zoonotic transfer’ — essentially, when a virus present in animals jumps to infect humans. … Zoonotic diseases are particularly complex because they overlap multiple sectors — environment, agriculture, and health — that are often siloed from one another,” the article said. “Dr. [Simon] Reid says his dream project would bring together researchers with knowledge of across multiple fields, including from human and animal medicine, ecology, sociology, microbiology and those who study the transmission of pathogens in humans, wildlife, and livestock.”

June 7: ‘Fujifilm says COVID-19 drug research might get extended till July,’ Republic World

“The trial involved the drug to be administered for a maximum of 14 days to coronavirus patients between 20 and 74 years old with mild pneumonia. The study excludes pregnant women due to side effects shown in animal testing, [a Fujifilm spokesman] added,” the report said.

June 7: ‘Study shows COVID-19 can spread easily between cats,’ The Asahi Shimbun

June 6: ‘Coronavirus: This is not the last pandemic,’ BBC News

“Many scientists agree that our behaviour – particularly deforestation and our encroachment on diverse wildlife habitats – is helping diseases to spread from animals into humans more frequently,” the article said.

June 6: ‘China begins phase 1 clinical trials of neutralizing antibody treatment for COVID-19,’ Global Times

“The phase I clinical trial will test the safety and dosage of the neutralizing antibody among healthy people, and this is a clinical trial for the world-first neutralizing antibody treatment against COVID-19 among healthy people after non-human primate experiments,” the article said.

June 5: ‘Daewoong reports progress in animal testing of tapeworm treatment medicine as COVID-19 medication,’ Aju Business Daily

June 5: ‘Sorrento Therapeutics stock surges after COVID-19 drug breakthrough,’ Idaho Reporter

“STI-4398 COVIDTRAP protein and STI-1499 neutralizing antibody have shown efficacy in an in vitro cellular infection model for SARS-CoV-2 established in our laboratory and these results justify now the progression into animal studies. We are planning to submit all preclinical data for scientific publication in the next two to three months,” said Dr. Slobodan Paessler.

June 5: ‘Frozen cells and empty cages: researchers struggle to revive stalled experiments after the lockdown,’ Nature

The article focuses on the gradual resumption of research in animal laboratories in the U.S. as the preliminary stages of reopening get underway.

June 5: ‘The biggest mystery: what it will take to trace the coronavirus source,’ Nature

“SARS-CoV-2 came from an animal but finding which one will be tricky, as will laying to rest speculation of a lab escape,” Nature noted.

June 5: ‘This cow’s antibodies could be the newest weapon against COVID-19,’ Science

June 5: ‘Researchers study how often household pets contract COVID-19,’ The Daily Evergreen

June 4: ‘K-State veterinary research team receives federal grant,’ KSNT

“The directors also plan to expand the program by obtaining additional grants that they can use to begin coronavirus research,” the report said.

June 4: ‘A German shepherd is first dog in the U.S. to test positive for the coronavirus,’ National Geographic

June 4: ‘Crab blood can save your life, but not the synthetic stuff,’ Popular Mechanics

June 4: ‘Tyson the alpaca takes heavyweight role in search for coronavirus vaccine,’ Reuters

June 4: ‘Does Fido have coronavirus? Tufts researchers are testing hundreds of animals to find out,’ The Boston Globe

June 4: ‘The coronavirus pandemic claims another victim: Medical research for deadly rare diseases,’ The Washington Post

This article highlights the impact the COVID-19 pandemic is having on research using animal models, including research to find cures for rare diseases.

June 4: ‘A coronavirus vaccine could require you to get two shots. Here’s why,’ USA Today

“Phase 1 studies look at both dose size and, if animal studies suggest two doses might be needed, then they also look at one dose versus two doses,” said Dr. Kelly Moore, associate director of immunization education for the Immunization Action Coalition.

June 3: ‘The keys to speed in race for vaccine, and its perils,’ Bloomberg

“After testing a vaccine in animals, developers must show it’s safe and effective in humans,” the article said.

June 3: ‘COVID-19 drug shows 100-fold drop in viral load in animal testing, South Korea’s Celltrion says,’ Fox News

June 3: ‘First US dog in NY contracts COVID-19; NC pug didn’t actually have it, experts say,’ Miami Herald

June 3: ‘Tests for coronavirus vaccine need this ingredient: Horseshoe crabs,’ The New York Times

June 3: ‘Animal medicine might play a crucial role in developing the sought-after coronavirus vaccine,’ The Telegraph

June 3: ‘WHO resumes study of hydroxychloroquine for treating COVID-19,’ Time

“Studies in animals and cell cultures in the lab show it may also help suppress the aggressive immune reaction that doctors have seen in some patients’ lungs and respiratory systems. That suggests that by the time a COVID-19 patient is hospitalized, it might be too late for hydroxychloroquine to help, since the infection is already well underway,” the report said.

June 2: ‘Household cat in Minnesota confirmed with virus that causes COVID-19,’ KELO.com

June 2: ‘Does interferon therapy work in COVID-19?’ News Medical

“The potential for the use of interferons in coronavirus infections was examined in the earlier outbreaks of SARS and MERS. In vitro experiments showed that interferons did have antiviral activity on the SARS-CoV, especially IFN-β and IFN-γ, and for IFN- β, against MERS-CoV as well,” the article said. “Follow-up animal experiments showed that IFN-β had higher antiviral activity against MERS CoV compared to the lopinavir-ritonavir combination.”

June 2: ‘New gene-edited lab mice are especially good at catching COVID-19,’ OneZero

June 2: ‘Ibuprofen to be tested as treatment to reduce COVID-19 breathing problems,’ Press Association

“This is very promising. But of course it is an animal study, so we want to translate that really compelling result into humans,” King’s College London neuroimaging and psychopharmacology professor Mitul Mehta told the PA news agency.

June 2: ‘South Korea expects human trials of Celltrion’s potential COVID-19 treatment in Europe,’ Reuters

The company will move to clinical trials after testing in animals.

June 2: ‘Carver County cat is first animal in Minnesota diagnosed with COVID-19,’ St. Paul Pioneer Press

June 2: ‘Monkeys, ferrets offer needed clues in COVID-19 vaccine race,’ The Associated Press

June 2: ‘Confirmation of COVID-19 in pet dog in New York,’ USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

June 1: ‘Celltrion achieves initial progress in animal testing of candidates for antibody treatment,’ Aju Business Daily

June 1: ‘SARS-CoV-2 looks like a hybrid of viruses from two different species,’  Ars Technica

June 1: ‘What to know about potential COVID-19 treatment remdesivir,’ Healthline

Even before COVID-19, Gilead had tested remdesivir against other coronaviruses — including those that cause SARS and MERS — in laboratory and animal studies,” the report noted.

June 1: ‘What’s the risk that animals will spread the coronavirus?’ Nature

June 1: ‘Celltrion’s Covid-19 antibody therapy reduces viral load in animal tests,’ Pharmaceutical Technology

June 1: ‘Operation Warp Speed selects billionaire scientist’s COVID-19 vaccine for monkey tests,’ Science

June 1: ‘Antibody injections could fight COVID-19 infections – an infectious disease expert explains the prospects,’ The Conversation

“Why are animal models so important? Because there are many other factors that could affect antibody efficacy in a living organism that can’t be simulated in a petri dish,” the article said. “For example, how long are mAbs functional in the body and are they safe? Animal models can provide preliminary safety data. Beyond animal models, a key mAb property to consider is whether it can be efficiently manufactured in a stable, safe form for human use.”

May 31: ‘Animals at university research labs still get care during the pandemic — but scores have been euthanized to conserve “critical resources,”’ Chicago Tribune

May 31: ‘South Korea’s Celltrion aims to start in-human COVID-19 drug trial in July,’ Reuters

“South Korea’s Celltrion Inc said on Monday its experimental treatment of COVID-19 demonstrated an up to 100-fold reduction in viral load of the disease in animal testing, saying it aims to start in-human clinical trials in late July,” the report said.

May 30: ‘The search for an animal model to study COVID-19,’ The Hindu

May 30: ‘Russia approves flu drug’s use against COVID-19,’ The Wall Street Journal

“Japan approved Avigan as a flu drug in 2014. It has only been used as a backup treatment and not given to most patients, partly because animal testing showed it could potentially cause birth defects,” WSJ reported.

May 29: ‘USDA says testing “unable to verify infection” in dog presumed to have COVID-19,’ ABC News

May 29: ‘Scientists develop COVID-19 test for dolphins, sea turtles,’ E&E News

May 29: ‘Fatal arrhythmias: Another reason why doctors remain cautious about chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine for treating COVID-19,’ Heart Rhythm

“In this study we used optical mapping to demonstrate the arrhythmic effects of [hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)] on [guinea pig] and rabbit hearts perfused with the upper therapeutic serum dose of HCQ (1000 ng/mL),” the authors wrote.

May 29: ‘Five facts about seeking a COVID-19 vaccine,’ RealClearPolicy

Fact #2: “Animal research suggests COVID-19 survivors may gain immunity.”

May 29: ‘Rapid COVID-19 vaccine development,’ Science

“It will be important to demonstrate the potential for vaccine efficacy in early-phase clinical studies by measuring the induction of neutralizing antibodies and in animal models by demonstrating protection against virus replication and disease,” the article said.

May 29: ‘Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2,’ Science

May 29: ‘Evolution of pandemic coronavirus outlines path from animals to humans,’ ScienceDaily

May 29: ‘Can veterinarians save us from the next pandemic?’ The Hill

May 29: ‘COVID-19 human challenge studies: ethical issues,’ The Lancet

“Although vaccines are usually associated with very low risks, experimental vaccines might not protect participants and, in some cases, might even increase the severity of disease among those who are subsequently infected. These outcomes have occurred, for example, for vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus (46) and dengue virus, (47) in some cases resulting in small numbers of deaths among participants in vaccine research,” the article said. “This kind of danger might apply to coronavirus vaccines, because vaccine-enhanced disease has been observed in animal challenge studies with coronaviruses (12).”

May 29: ‘Research labs to become operational in coming weeks,’ The Pitt News

“Since each lab is different, the procedures will vary. For example, the animal research labs cannot allow researchers into the lab past a certain time or it will interfere with the circadian rhythms of the animals — making it difficult to have multiple shifts,” the report said.

May 28: ‘Researchers look at role of pets in COVID-19 transmission,’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

May 28: ‘Federal government rents monkeys from Denver business to fight COVID-19,’ LancasterOnline

May 28: ‘Ferritin heavy chain protein shows promise as a potential SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or antiviral,’ News Medical

“Research on COVID-19 patient samples has shown the presence of two antibodies that inhibit viral RBD-ACE2 binding. Animal experiments have shown that these could reduce the viral load in the lungs of infected mice,” Dr. Liji Thomas wrote.

May 28: ‘COVID-19 vaccine developers search for antibodies that “first do no harm,”’ Scientific American

Scientists “are connecting hypothetical dots based on past studies of experimental vaccines for previous outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), in which some immunized animals developed more severe disease,” the report said.

May 28: ‘Novartis inks deal to make experimental coronavirus vaccine,’ The Wall Street Journal

“The Swiss drugmaker’s gene therapy unit AveXis is already making test batches of the vaccine and plans to start producing doses later in the summer that can be used for a clinical trial, said Dave Lennon, the unit’s president. … The Novartis unit has so far committed to manufacture doses for animal studies and a phase 1 trial, free of charge, Dr. Lennon said,” WSJ reported.

May 27: ‘Dogs sniff out coronavirus “far better than machines or tests,”’ Alliance for Science

May 27: ‘Chinese researchers find human neutralizing antibody targeting COVID-19 receptor binding site,’ Global Times

Researchers working with rhesus macaques published results in Nature on May 26.

May 27: ‘UTSA professor’s “rabbit fever” vaccine to be tested against coronavirus,’ San Antonio Express-News

May 27: ‘A small number of monkeys could help millions of people: Coronavirus vaccine testing,’ Speaking of Research

May 27: ‘US company trials coronavirus vaccine candidate in Australia,’ The Associated Press

Novavax started clinical trials for a coronavirus vaccine candidate, NVX-CoV2373, in Australia. Animal tests showed positive results in low doses.

May 27: ‘Coronavirus questions: 10 things we still urgently want to know about COVID-19 in the next 100 days,’ USA Today

“Oxford University in England and Maryland-based vaccine company Novavax seem ahead of the global race as their vaccine candidates have shown success in animal trials,” USA Today noted.

May 26: ‘Nature publishes preclinical characterization and primate efficacy data on Junshi Biosciences’ COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies,’ Globe Newswire

May 26: ‘A human neutralizing antibody targets the receptor binding site of SARS-CoV-2,’ Nature

Researchers working with rhesus macaques found the first human neutralizing monoclonal antibody for COVID-19.

May 26: ‘Merck, one of Big Pharma’s biggest players, reveals its COVID-19 vaccine and therapy plans,’ Science

Merck Research Laboratories President Roger Perlmutter reportedly said the company plans to look at EIDD-2801’s cancer-causing potential in reproductive and developmental biology animal studies.

May 26: ‘Coronavirus: why we’re using llamas to help fight the pandemic,’ The Conversation

May 26: ‘Taxpayers paid to develop remdesivir but will have no say when Gilead sets the price,’ The Washington Post

“In remdesivir’s case, government researchers narrowed the search from 1,000 compounds to the chemical that would become remdesivir, confirmed its potency in laboratory tests, tested it in monkeys, and finally sponsored a pivotal clinical trial in humans,” the report said.

May 26: ‘COVID-19 vaccine development,’ U.S. Government Accountability Office

“In the preclinical phase, researchers use cells and animals to assess safety and produce evidence of clinical promise, evaluated by the candidate’s ability to elicit a protective immune response,” a GAO report said.

May 25: ‘Thailand enters global race for vaccine with trials on monkeys,’ Agence France-Presse

May 25: ‘“A key milestone”: COVID-19 vaccine “highly effective” in ferrets, says VIDO-Intervac,’ Saskatoon StarPhoenix

May 25: ‘Canadian coronavirus vaccine candidate delivers promising results in animal tests,’ The Globe and Mail

May 24: ‘Who’s leading the race? A guide to coronavirus vaccines in the pipeline,’ Australian Broadcasting Corporation

“While it will be some months before we know whether any of the proposed vaccines are effective, initial safety trials and encouraging animal studies show promising early signs,” ABC noted.

May 24: ‘How animal research at UGA is adapting to COVID-19,’ The Red & Black

May 22: ‘VIDO-Intervac wraps up animal phase of COVID-19 vaccine testing,’ CKOM News

May 22: ‘The coronavirus vaccine is on track to be the fastest ever developed,’ The New Yorker

In mice, the vaccine provided full protection against viral replication in the lungs, which researchers tested by giving mice the vaccine and then deliberately infecting them with the virus,” The New Yorker reported about Moderna’s experimental vaccine. “(Scientists place a small drop of virus-laced fluid over the mouse’s nostrils. Similar trials on rhesus macaques are about to start.)”

May 22: ‘Coronavirus vaccine shows promising early results in China,’ The New York Times

The report said:

“‘This is promising data, but it’s early data,’ said Dr. Dan Barouch, director of vaccine research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, who was not involved in the work. ‘Over all, I would say this is good news.’

… And on Wednesday, Dr. Barouch and his colleagues published a study showing their prototype vaccine protected monkeys from coronavirus infection.”

May 21: ‘Airport dogs could sniff out coronavirus,’ CNN

May 20: ‘NIH supported MMRRC repository providing COVID-19 related mouse models for research,’ Mutant Mouse Resource & Research Centers

May 20: ‘New studies show that developing a coronavirus vaccine should be possible,’ NPR

“Three studies published Wednesday suggest it should be possible to come up with a coronavirus vaccine — tests performed on animals have shown the right results to prove a vaccine could be possible,” NPR reported.

May 20: ‘Inovio says COVID-19 vaccine produces antibodies in mice, guinea pigs,’ Reuters

May 20: ‘DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques,’ Science

May 20: ‘Human viruses can jump into animals, too—sowing the seeds of future epidemics,’ Scientific American

BREAKING NEWS: May 20: ‘Two studies suggest COVID-19 antibodies provide immunity,’ The Boston Globe

Two studies published in Science found antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 provide some level of immunity in rhesus macaque monkeys, though it is unknown how long protection lasts.

May 20: ‘Wistar Institute coronavirus vaccine shows signs of eliciting immune response in animals,’ The Daily Pennsylvanian

May 20: ‘Vaccines can protect against COVID-19 in nonhuman primates, study says,’ The Harvard Gazette

May 20: ‘Two new studies suggest COVID-19 antibodies provide immunity,’ The Hill

“In one of the studies, nine rhesus macaque monkeys, which share 93 percent of the same DNA as humans, were injected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The virus quickly spread and all of the animals developed viral pneumonia, though all of them recovered within 28 days,” The Hill reported.

May 20: ‘Progress reported for coronavirus vaccines from Jefferson and Wistar, skepticism about Moderna,’ The Philadelphia Inquirer

“Our partnership with Bharat Biotech will accelerate our vaccine candidate through the next phases of development,” Jefferson Vaccine Institute Director Matthias Schnell said. “We will be able to complete animal testing and move to a phase 1 clinical trial [in humans] rapidly.”

May 20: ‘A new entry in the race for a coronavirus vaccine: Hope,’ The New York Times

“Animal studies have raised expectations, too. Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center on Wednesday published research showing that a prototype vaccine effectively protected monkeys from infection with the virus,” the article said. “The findings will pave the way to development of a human vaccine, said the investigators.”

May 20: ‘How would a drug to potentially treat the coronavirus be developed?’ Utah Public Radio

“Once they’ve determined an animal’s coronavirus symptoms, [Utah State University Professor Brett] Hurst said they can treat the animals with the drugs that proved to be successful in the human-cell model,” the report said.

May 20: ‘COVID-19 vaccine possible by early 2021, local expert says,’ WWL-TV

“Another thing that was similar to humans is that most of the animals [primates] didn’t get sick, visibly ill, but there were a couple that did,” said Dr. Skip Bohm, chief veterinary medical officer of the Tulane National Primate Research Center.

May 19: ‘Coronavirus vaccine trials have delivered their first results — but their promise is still unclear,’ Nature

“One way to find out whether vaccines can prevent transmission would be to study them in animals that are naturally susceptible to the virus and seem capable of spreading it, such as ferrets and hamsters, says [University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research aerobiologist Douglas] Reed,” the article said.

May 18: ‘As researchers at Northwestern and elsewhere scramble to find a treatment for COVID-19, they hope this time the money won’t run out before the next threat hits,’ Chicago Tribune

“When researchers identify the genetic sequence of a protein or enzyme that is essential to the virus’s replication, they then look for a compound that blocks it, called the inhibitor. The compounds are developed into a drug that not only lasts long enough in the body to kill the virus but is also nontoxic,” the report said. “Only then can it move to animal trials and, eventually, human trials.”

May 18: ‘CureVac ramps up COVID-19 mRNA vaccine effort as Moderna analysts raise questions about animal data,’ FierceBiotech 

“CureVac said late last week that its lead COVID-19 vaccine candidate generated ‘high levels’ of virus-neutralizing titers in animal models and that it ‘has the potential to induce a strong immunologic response to neutralize SARS-CoV-2,'” the report said.

May 18: ‘Lawrence Livermore scientists part of three-institution team working to develop vaccine for tularemia,’ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers will collaborate with scientists from the University of New Mexico and the Tulane National Primate Research Center.

“Lab researchers see the [nanolipoprotein particles] NLPs platform as a flexible tool that can broadly be applied to developing vaccines for different pathogens,” the press release said.

May 18: ‘Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine shows promise in early results,’ Live Science 

The article said:

“‘These interim phase 1 data, while early, demonstrate that vaccination with mRNA-1273 elicits an immune response of the magnitude caused by natural infection starting with a dose as low as 25 µg,’ Dr. Tal Zaks, the chief medical officer at Moderna, said in the statement. When combined with data from the mouse study, these results ‘substantiate our belief that mRNA-1273 has the potential to prevent COVID-19 disease and advance our ability to select a dose for pivotal trials.’”

May 18: ‘Early data show Moderna COVID-19 vaccine generates immune response,’ STAT News

“The neutralizing antibody and safety results from the Phase 1 clinical study are promising for the Moderna mRNA vaccine candidate and supportive to proceed forward with the planned Phase 2 studies,” RenovaCare Chief Scientific Officer Robin Robinson told STAT.

The health-oriented news website reported: “Vaccination with the candidate vaccine, provisionally labeled mRNA-1273, also prevented viral replication in the lungs of mice in preclinical testing, the [Moderna’s] statement said.”

May 18: “Why Rhesus monkeys are used for most vaccine trials,” The Times of India

May 18: ‘Tulane scientists discuss ongoing coronavirus research including plans to vaccinate animals,’ WVUE

May 18: ‘Chinese researchers identify highly potent neutralizing antibodies against COVID-19,’ Xinhua News Agency

“Chinese researchers have successfully identified multiple highly potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, from convalescent plasma by high-throughput single-cell sequencing, according to a new study published in Cell on Sunday. … New results from animal studies showed that neutralizing antibodies provide a potential cure for COVID-19 as well as a means for short-term prevention, which marks a major milestone in the fight against the pandemic,” the report said.

May 15: ‘Coronavirus vaccine: Macaque monkey trial offers hope,’ BBC News

May 15: ‘Researchers use cows to develop antibody treatment,’ CNN

May 15: ‘Coronavirus research: The known “risk” scientists are taking in race for COVID-19 vaccine,’ Nine News Sydney

“It costs quite a bit of money to run phase one and two studies, and you might be halfway through that when you show your animal has no protection,” Director of the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity Sharon Lewin said.

May 15: ‘Testing of COVID-19 skin patch vaccine begun by Verndari Inc. in collaboration with UC Davis,’ The California Aggie

“Before you move [the vaccine] into the human, […] you need to work in multiple animal models, which takes time, to show that not only were you able to show that it’s safe, but that in the event that that individual got infected, it stopped the infection from causing a clinical disease or at least reduced the clinical symptoms,” said Kristin Grimsrud, the associate director of vivaria and veterinary care at UC Davis’ Mouse Biology Program.

May 15: ‘UK researchers hope dogs can be trained to detect coronavirus,’ The Guardian 

Research has shown that diseases such as malaria have a distinctive odor and also that respiratory disease can change the body’s odor. Scientists are working to determine if medical detection dogs can detect COVID-19 in humans.

May 14: ‘From hamsters to baboons: The animals helping scientists understand the coronavirus,’ Scientific American

May 14: ‘SARS lessons for COVID-19 vaccine design,’ ScienceDaily

“The ‘spike’ proteins of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are related and they attach to the same molecule called ACE 2 on human cells to infect people. We now also know through animal experiments with SARS-CoV-2 that neutralising antibodies protect from reinfection,” University of Melbourne professor Kanta Subbarao wrote in an article.

May 14: ‘WSU researchers look to head off COVID-19’s deadly pneumonia,’ WSU Insider

This Washington State University press release announced the development of an antibody that successfully neutralizes protein A9, a protein that triggers inflammation, including severe pneumonia in COVID-19 patients. University researchers discovered the specific role of this A9 protein by doing research with mice and studying the A9 protein in mice. Then they were able to develop an antibody.

May 13: ‘GC Wellbeing finds placenta injection relieves COVID-19 symptoms through animal testing,’ Aju Business Daily

A Korean placenta injection showed positive results in a ferret model.

May 13: ‘UW studying coronavirus’s impact on pets,’ Patch

May 13: ‘Infection of bat and human intestinal organoids by SARS-CoV-2,’ Nature

May 13: ‘Cats with no symptoms spread virus to other cats in lab test,’ The Associated Press

May 12: ‘Research underway to understand how COVID-19 affects different animal species,’ Scripps Media

May 12: ‘Unveiling “Warp Speed,” the White House’s America-first push for a coronavirus vaccine,’ Science

The White House will soon announce its “Operation Warp Speed” to speed up the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. “The project, vaguely described to date but likely to be formally announced by the White House in the coming days, will pick a diverse set of vaccine candidates and pour essentially limitless resources into unprecedented comparative studies in animals, fast-tracked human trials, and manufacturing,” the article said.

May 12: ‘Pigs exempted: Study uncovers 48 animal species most likely to get coronavirus,’ Science Times

May 11: ‘Researchers develop promising MERS vaccine, with potential for COVID-19,’ Drug Target Review

“A Korean research team has developed a new vaccine platform using RNA-based adjuvants for the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which showed promise in nonhuman primates,” the publication reported.

May 11: ‘New HIV vaccine combination strategy provides better and more durable protection,’ Emory University

“Researchers from the Emory Consortium for Innovative AIDS Research in Nonhuman Primates and their colleagues across North America have shown a new HIV vaccine is better at preventing infection and lasts longer, continuing to protect one year after vaccination. The findings, which are published online today in Nature Medicine, provide important insights for preventing HIV, and the timeliness of the results could also help shape the scientific community’s approach to developing vaccines for COVID-19,” a press release said.

May 9: ‘Animals and COVID-19,’ The Scranton Times-Tribune

“Recent research shows that ferrets, cats and golden Syrian hamsters can be experimentally infected with the virus and can spread the infection to other animals of the same species in laboratory settings,” the Q&A article said.

May 8: ‘From proposals to funded research in 48 hours: Tulane scientists receive Fast Grants,’ Tulane

“Mairi Noverr of Tulane University School of Medicine along with Monica Vaccari and Tracy Fischer of Tulane National Primate Research Center all received Fast Grants for COVID-19 research,” according to the university.

May 7: ‘Vanderbilt University Medical Center and IDBiologics ally in race to develop breakthrough medicines for COVID-19,’ Business Wire

May 7: ‘The latest on the COVID-19 vaccine,’ Extra TV

On May 7, Extra TV’s Billy Bush sat down with Dr. Armand Dorian to discuss the latest headlines surrounding COVID-19. They discussed the University of Oxford’s successful COVID-19 vaccine trials with rhesus macaques. This allowed Oxford University to move into human trials in late April. Watch the Extra TV segment to learn more! Video credit: Extra TV

May 6: ‘Pitt collaborating with other researchers on nasal spray that could prevent coronavirus infection,’ CBS Pittsburgh

“In animal studies, Q-griffithsin worked against Ebola, hepatitis, MERS, SARS and other viruses,” the report said.

May 6: ‘Rapid development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2,’ Science 

May 6: ‘Hoping llamas will become coronavirus heroes,’ The New York Times

May 5: ‘Antibodies from llamas are a promising avenue in fight against COVID-19,’ Laboratory Equipment

May 5: ‘Belgian, U.S. scientists look to llama in search for COVID-19 treatment,’ Reuters

May 4: ‘Fauci: No scientific evidence the coronavirus was made in a Chinese lab,’ National Geographic

“Fauci has said that he thinks a final vaccine could be available for general use as early as January, which would break records for the speed at which previous vaccines were developed,” National Geographic reported. “One reason for his confidence is the ‘impressive’ results being seen now in animals tested with a vaccine candidate made by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Moderna Therapeutics, which brought it into human trials in a record 42 days.”

May 4: ‘San Antonio researchers land $200,000 to develop possible COVID-19 vaccine,’ San Antonio Current

May 4: ‘A coronavirus vaccine project takes a page from gene therapy,’ The New York Times

Researchers at two Harvard-affiliated hospitals have studied their vaccine candidates in mice. The team expects to test for safety in monkeys in about a month.

May 1: ‘COVID-19 antibody testing: Tougher than true/false,’ Knowable Magazine

“Animal research does suggest that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may appear and confer some immunity,” the article said.

May 1: ‘Impression Healthcare to commence animal testing of CBD drug for COVID-19 related respiratory conditions,’ Small Caps

April 30: ‘Animal health laboratories aid testing for COVID-19 in people,’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

April 30: ‘Napa company begins testing a potential COVID-19 vaccine,’ Napa Valley Register

“Verndari, Inc. is also in discussions with the California National Primate Research Center at UC Davis to conduct further testing in nonhuman primates,” the article said.

April 30: ‘Verndari begins preclinical testing of COVID-19 vaccine candidate,’ Pharma News Daily

April 30: ‘We found and tested 47 old drugs that might treat the coronavirus: Results show promising leads and a whole new way to fight COVID-19,’ The Conversation

April 30: ‘Old drugs may find a new purpose: Fighting the coronavirus,’ The New York Times 

April 30: ‘San Antonio Partnership for Precision Therapeutics awards $200,000 toward COVID-19 vaccine project,’ The University of Texas at San Antonio

“Vaccine development takes a long time. There has to be rigorous testing in different animal models, and then small-scale studies in humans,” said microbiologist Karl Klose, director of the South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and professor of microbiology at UTSA. “The process is designed to ensure the safety of the people who take the vaccine. We will learn a lot from this process, including how to use a live vaccine platform to protect against an emerging disease. Hopefully in the future, we can respond quicker with a vaccine against the next pandemic.”

April 29: ‘UC Davis researchers to begin testing coronavirus vaccine patch this week,’ CBS Sacramento

“Verndari, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company based in Napa, will begin preclinical testing of a possible coronavirus vaccine on mice this week in partnership with UC Davis’ mouse biology program,” the report said.

April 29: ‘Research delayed, rodent populations reduced during pandemic,’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

April 29: ‘Maine research facility working with mice to develop more COVID-19 testing,’ WGME

“This is gonna be a critical piece. It’s like you can’t fight a war without tanks,” said Dr. Ed Liu, president and CEO of The Jackson Laboratory. “You can’t fight a war, this war, the pandemic, without a model system to test whether the drugs or the vaccines work.”

April 28: ‘Flow Pharma reports Ebola vaccine success and how that directed FlowVax COVID-19 vaccine design,’ Accesswire

“Our article published today shows that a single injection of our Ebola vaccine provided 100% protection for mice exposed to Ebola virus” said Flow Pharma Chief Science Officer Charles Herst, the first author on the article. “By relying on killer T-cells rather than antibodies, FlowVax Ebola is able to attack the nucleocapsid protein located at the center of the virus where antibodies cannot reach. We are taking the same approach with FlowVax COVID-19.”

April 27: ‘In race for a coronavirus vaccine, an Oxford group leaps ahead,’ The New York Times

“Scientists at the National Institutes of Health’s Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Montana last month inoculated six rhesus macaque monkeys with single doses of the Oxford vaccine. The animals were then exposed to heavy quantities of the virus that is causing the pandemic — exposure that had consistently sickened other monkeys in the lab,” the report said. “But more than 28 days later all six were healthy, said Vincent Munster, the researcher who conducted the test.

‘The rhesus macaque is pretty much the closest thing we have to humans,’ Dr. Munster said, noting that scientists were still analyzing the result.”

April 26: ‘KBP begins testing COVID-19 vaccine candidate on animals,’ Owensboro Times

April 25: ‘Coronavirus: In a race against time, vaccine testing expands,’ Mercury News

April 24: ‘New COVID-19 vaccine shows promise in monkeys. Next step: humans,’ Live Science

April 24: ‘Celebrating #WorldImmunizationWeek 2020: #VaccinesWorkforAll,’ Speaking of Research

April 23: ‘A look back at medical advances in 2019 and the role played by animal research,’ European Animal Research Association

BREAKING NEWS: April 23: ‘COVID-19 vaccine protects monkeys from new coronavirus, Chinese biotech reports,’ Science

Beijing-based Sinovac Biotech’s COVID-19 vaccine-in-development showed promise in rhesus macaques, scientists reported.

April 23: ‘Three ways to make coronavirus drugs in a hurry,’ Scientific American

April 22: ‘Statement in support of the global research community’s efforts to end the COVID-19 crisis,’ Speaking of Research

This joint statement is the result of a collaboration between several research advocacy organizations along with individual biomedical researchers, animal care experts and university communicators.

April 20: ‘COVID-19: New animal data back up Gilead’s remdesivir as other treatment candidates emerge,’ FierceBiotech

April 20: ‘Why the new coronavirus affects some animals, but not others,’ Smithsonian Magazine

April 19: ‘PAK1-blockers: Potential therapeutics against COVID-19,’ Medicine in Drug Discovery

“Ciclesonide is used to treat inflammatory disesaes such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. It is marketed under the brand names Alvesco for asthma etc. It was patented in 1990 and approved for adults and children 12 and over by the FDA in 2006,” the article said. “Regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory effect, it is most likely that this hormone blocks PAK1, mainly for following reasons: (i) first of all, inflammation in general requires PAK1 [3], and in PAK1-null mutant of mice no inflammation takes place [15], (ii) ciclesonide (10 mg/kg/day) almost completely suppresses the PAK1-dependent growth of lung cancer (A541 cell line) xenografts in immune-deficient mice as well [16], and (iii) this hormone was recently shown to block both PAK1-dependent replication and pathogenesis (fibrosis = lung inflammation) blocks COVID-19 pathogenesis clinically [2]: https://writening.net/page?FC3QPm.”

April 18: ‘Rocky Mountain Labs make advancements in race to combat COVID,’ NBC Montana 

“Investigators at Rocky Mountain Labs tested [remdesivir] in a non-human primate model, a SARS-Coronavirus Type 2 or Covid-19,” said RML’s associate director for scientific management, Dr. Marshall Bloom. “They found that this drug had significant affect in ameliorating the course and severity of COVID-19 infections in non-human primates, if given early enough during the course of the disease.”

April 17: ‘Coronavirus: Animal testing may be best tool to defeat COVID-19| Bailey,’ Asbury Park Press

April 17: ‘Investigational chimp adenovirus MERS-CoV vaccine protects monkeys,’ National Institutes of Health

April 17: ‘Remdesivir eases COVID-19 symptoms in monkeys in 12 hours, small preliminary study shows,’ Newsweek

April 16: ‘Scientists at Tulane National Primate Research Center studying vaccines, treatments for COVID-19,’ The Lens

April 14: ‘San Antonio researchers lead the race to create a coronavirus vaccine,’ KENS 5

“We have seven scientists and a staff of over 30 people working overtime on establishing [nonhuman primate] animal models,” Texas Biomed President and CEO Larry Schlesinger said.

April 14: ‘Why will it take so long to develop a COVID-19 vaccine?’ The Globe and Mail

April 13: ‘Saskatoon based lab’s COVID-19 vaccine in animal testing stage,’ DiscoverMooseJaw.com

April 13: ‘Clinical trials for promising COVID-19 drug underway in north Texas,’ KERA News

“Remdesivir is one of the unique compounds that actually gets stuck and makes the replication complex stop in its tracks,” Dr. Robert Gottlieb told KERA. “It has been used against SARS in vitro, and actually that’s why it became such a good lead compound with the current epidemic. … We’ve studied [SARS-CoV-1] and some similar viruses like [MERS] … both in small animals as well as in larger animals, and this remdesivir seems to work just fine in those cases.”

April 13: ‘Could a 100-year-old vaccine protect against COVID-19?’ Live Science

April 13: ‘UC Davis researchers work toward developing potential vaccine for COVID-19,’ The Aggie

“We learned from [previous research] about basically how to grow this virus, what things might inhibit it, what are some vaccine strategies that could be tried and then we start to think about the biology of this new agent and whether these strategies are applicable,” said Denis Hartigan-O’Connor, an associate professor in the department of medical microbiology and immunology and a core scientist at the California National Primate Research Center.

April 12: ‘The real reason veterinarians gave a tiger a Covid-19 test,’ WIRED

“Veterinary diagnostic labs across the country are developing their own tests for Covid-19, and many use the same basic processes that human tests do,” the article said.

April 10: ‘Animal studies give hope to a future where a pill could prevent COVID-19 infection,’ ABC News

April 9: ‘The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape,’ Nature

“In order to assess vaccine efficacy, COVID-19 specific animal models are being developed, including ACE2-transgenic mice, hamsters, ferrets and non-human primates. Biosafety-level 3 containment measures are needed for animal studies involving live-virus challenges, and the demand for these capabilities is likely to require international coordination to ensure that sufficient laboratory capacity is available,” the article said.

April 8: ‘Flow Pharma announces start of pre-clinical efficacy study for FlowVax COVID-19 vaccine,’ Accesswire

“Flow Pharma, Inc., a San Francisco Bay Area biotechnology company developing the FlowVax(TM) peptide vaccine platform technology, today announced that researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) will begin testing Flow Pharma’s FlowVax COVID-19 vaccine candidate by challenging nonhuman primates with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 in humans, after the animals are vaccinated this month with FlowVax COVID-19,” a press release said.

April 8: ‘Auburn’s CPAP-to-ventilator device passes major test on live animal,’ Auburn University

April 8: ‘Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2,’ Science 

April 8: ‘Tulane University awarded grant to start studies on COVID-19 vaccines,’ WVUE 

April 7: ‘Engineered virus might be able to block coronavirus infections, mouse study shows,’ American Society of Microbiology

April 7: ‘Army researchers start coronavirus vaccine testing on primates at Maryland’s Fort Detrick,’ Baltimore Sun

April 7: ‘New coronavirus drug shows promise in animal tests,’ Scientific American

April 7: ‘Army begins testing possible coronavirus vaccines on primates at Fort Detrick,’ The Hill

April 7: ‘See what it takes to make a vaccine during the coronavirus pandemic,’ The Hill

“When you talk about developing a vaccine for millions of people, safety is an enormous priority,” said Dr. Mark Poznansky, director of the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center at Massachusetts General Hospital.

April 6: ‘Promising drug on the horizon for COVID-19,’ NPR

Scientists from Emory University in Atlanta; the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; and Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee, reported promising results after testing the drug EIDD-2801 on mice infected with coronaviruses similar to the one that causes COVID-19.

April 6: ‘Army researchers begin animal testing of coronavirus vaccine,’ Military.com

April 6: ‘An orally bioavailable broad-spectrum antiviral inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cell cultures and multiple coronaviruses in mice,’ Science Translational Medicine

April 6: ‘Coronavirus patients rush to join studies of Gilead drug,’ The Associated Press

“In animal tests against SARS and MERS, diseases caused by similar coronaviruses, the drug helped prevent infection and reduced the severity of symptoms when given early enough in the course of illness,” the AP reported.

April 6: ‘Scientists around the globe pivot their research to SARS-CoV-2,’ The Scientist

BREAKING NEWS: April 6: ‘Tulane University awarded $10.3 million to test therapeutics, vaccines for novel coronavirus,’ Tulane

The Tulane National Primate Research Center in Louisiana will study COVID-19 in three species of nonhuman primates and evaluate potential COVID-19 vaccines and treatments in the nonhuman primate species that most closely mimics the progression of the disease in a human.

April 2: ‘Coronavirus: Australian scientists begin tests of potential vaccines,’ BBC News

The World Health Organization cleared potential coronavirus vaccines for animal testing. Researchers in Australia have inserted vaccine samples into ferrets. “Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) says its tests will be the first comprehensive pre-clinical trials of the vaccines to use an animal model,” the article said.

April 2: ‘Pitt team makes progress on possible COVID-19 vaccine,’ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

April 2: ‘Pittsburgh scientists develop possible coronavirus vaccine, hope FDA can fast-track it,’ Pittsburgh Tribune-Review

April 2: ‘Potential COVID-19 vaccine shows promise in mouse study,’ Reuters

A team at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is working on a potential COVID-19 vaccine. It’s shown promise during initial tests in mice, scientists said.

April 2: ‘Chinese wildlife ban freezes export of test monkeys amid worldwide push for COVID-19 vaccine,’ The Globe and Mail

April 1: ‘Interview with Johnson & Johnson research head: Vaccine development at “turbo speed” – knowledge,’ NewsyList

“We already have a lot of data on the safety of the vaccine candidate, because the necessary preclinical studies in nonhuman primates and animals have already been carried out,” J&J research chief Paul Stoffels said in an interview with the German newspaper Tagesspiegel.

April 1: ‘Texas Biomed receives $3M to expand coronavirus studies,’ Rivard Report

“Researchers will use the funds to amplify efforts to investigate how SARS-CoV-2 – the virus that causes COVID-19 or the novel coronavirus – affects animals. Previously, research was limited to studying the effects on baboons, but now will include macaques, marmosets, mice, and guinea pigs,” the article said.

April 1: ‘Covid-19 changed how the world does science, together,’ The New York Times

April 1: ‘Georgia pharmaceutical lab working on COVID-19 vaccine, waiting on federal funds,’ WGXA 

BREAKING NEWS: March 31: ‘Testing to begin in metro Atlanta for COVID-19 vaccines,’ 11Alive News

GeoVax is preparing to test three candidate vaccines for the novel coronavirus in animals, CEO David Dodd says. With funding from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, GeoVax will use animal testing to zero in on the vaccine that is most likely to protect people from COVID-19, then scientists will test the most promising of them in clinical trials later this year.

March 31: ‘Israel tests coronavirus vaccine prototype on rodents at defense lab,’ Reuters

March 31: ‘Should pets be tested for coronavirus?’ Science

Veterinarians don’t have evidence that pets can spread SARS-CoV-2, but they want more information, and several labs have developed veterinary tests. Shelley Rankin, a microbiologist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, says if pets were readily susceptible to the virus, a spike would have been noticed by now, and the USDA and many experts warn against widespread testing of pets for COVID-19.

March 30: ‘Trump administration orders $1.8M in coronavirus research monkeys,’ The Daily Beast

BREAKING NEWS: March 28: ‘Louisiana researchers studying monkeys for a coronavirus vaccine face challenges as state cases spike,’ ABC News

Scientists at the Tulane National Primate Research Center in Louisiana are working hard to fight COVID-19. ABC News gave an inside look at the challenges these researchers are up against.

March 27: ‘The US keeps millions of chickens in secret farms to make flu vaccines. But their eggs won’t work for coronavirus,’ CNN

About 82% of the 174.5 million doses of influenza vaccine distributed across the U.S. this season were produced in chicken eggs, according to the CDC, but the many chickens kept in secure facilities in the U.S. won’t be useful in developing a COVID-19 vaccine. Coronaviruses and influenza viruses have different receptors and other characteristics, and the novel coronavirus can’t replicate inside eggs the way influenza can, says pathology professor John Nicholls.

BREAKING NEWS: March 26: ‘How monoclonal antibodies might prove useful against the coronavirus,’ NPR

Researchers are studying antibodies to find out how to beat COVID-19. “If the antibodies work to protect cells from infection, then researchers will test them in animals exposed to the virus — to see if the proteins prevent the animals from getting sick, or, alternatively, if they can improve the health of animals that are sick with a version of COVID-19,” the report said.

March 25: ‘Pirbright begins testing new coronavirus vaccines on animals to help combat COVID-19,’ The Pirbright Institute

March 24: ‘When might experimental drugs to treat COVID-19 be ready? A forecast,’ STAT

March 24: ‘Idexx Laboratories tested thousands of pets for coronavirus. None have come back positive,’ Today

March 23: ‘Oxford University prepares for coronavirus vaccine trial,’ pharmaphorum

March 22: ‘WHO launches global megatrial of the four most promising coronavirus treatments,’ Science

“With about 15% of COVID-19 patients suffering from severe disease and hospitals being overwhelmed, treatments are desperately needed. So rather than coming up with compounds from scratch that may take years to develop and test, researchers and public health agencies are looking to repurpose drugs already approved for other diseases and known to be largely safe. They’re also looking at unapproved drugs that have performed well in animal studies with the other two deadly coronaviruses, which cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS),” the article said.

March 22: ‘Africa’s mountain gorillas also at risk from coronavirus,’ The Associated Press

“We know that gorillas are very sensitive to human diseases,” Paula Kahumbu, chief executive of the Kenya-based conservation group WildlifeDirect, told the AP. “If anyone has a cold or a flu they are not allowed to go and see the gorillas. With coronavirus having such a long time of no symptoms in some cases, it means that we could actually put those gorillas at risk.”

March 21: ‘Second dog tests positive for coronavirus as owners warned not to abandon pets,’ MarketWatch

March 21: ‘University of Minnesota is going ‘full-on MacGyver’ against COVID-19,’ Star Tribune

March 20: ‘COVID-19: U of S lab develops animal model for COVID vaccine testing,’ The StarPhoenix

“The University of Saskatchewan’s Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac) is the first Canadian lab to develop an animal model for COVID-19 vaccine testing,” the article said.

March 19: ‘Chloroquine, an old malaria drug, may help treat novel coronavirus, doctors say,’ ABC News

Chloroquine phosphate, an 85-year-old antiviral drug that has previously been used for the treatment of malaria, and its derivative hydroxychloroquine have recently shown promising in-vitro results in primate cells infected with SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine phosphate became the first-choice antiviral drug for malaria after researchers discovered it drastically reduced mortality in African penguins with avian malaria.

March 19: ‘US primate centers work to protect animals from COVID-19,’ The Scientist

Monkeys are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. Primate center scientists are working to prevent colonies from infection.

March 18: ‘Coronavirus vaccines: five key questions as trials begin,’ Nature

March 18: ‘HIV drug combo fails as treatment for severe COVID-19 in China study,’ Reuters

Extensive studies in a variety of nonhuman primates, including macaques, led to the development of lopinavir and ritonavir as HIV/AIDS combination anti-retroviral drugs. In 2015, researchers discovered that lopinavir and ritonavir improved outcomes in marmoset monkeys infected with the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since SARS-COV-2 and MERS-CoV are both coronaviruses and share many similarities, researchers launched a clinical trial of lopinavir and ritonavir in patients with COVID-19 in China.

March 18: ‘Respirators, quarantines, and worst-case scenarios: Lab animal facilities grapple with the pandemic,’ Science

The heads of two animal facilities spoke with the academic journal about how they are dealing with COVID-19.

March 18: ‘Letter: I know lab animals are crucial in finding a COVID-19 vaccine,’ The Mercury News

March 17: ‘Regeneron says potential Covid-19 drugs could start human tests by early summer,’ STAT

Regeneron has developed hundreds of monoclonal antibody drugs that show potential for treating SARS-COV-2. Regeneron’s antibodies are produced in mice that have been genetically modified to have human-like immune systems.

March 17: ‘Singapore startup testing drug used to treat cats in race to find COVID-19 cure,’ Today

March 16: ‘First person injected with trial coronavirus vaccine in Seattle,’ Forbes

Moderna and NIAID are currently investigating a potential messenger RNA vaccine for the new coronavirus. A clinical trial in humans has begun in Seattle for the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Despite reports to the contrary, the clinical trial began after mRNA-1273 was tested in mice.

March 16: ‘Why animal research is essential to tackling Covid-19,’ Spiked

March 16: ‘As the coronavirus spreads, a drug that once raised the world’s hopes is given a second shot,’ STAT

Gilead Sciences’ antiviral drug remdesivir is currently being tested in five human clinical trials for its effectiveness against the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Pre-clinical research in laboratory mice and other animals demonstrated that remdesivir was effective against the MERS and SARS coronaviruses.

March 13: ‘Did an experimental drug help a US coronavirus patient?’ Science

Doctors tested remdesivir on a critically ill patient with COVID-19 in California. An infectious disease specialist on the team treating the patient answered questions about the case. In February, Gilead and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) published a paper demonstrating that remdesivir inhibited the replication of the coronavirus MERS in infected monkeys.

March 12: ‘Quarantine the cat? Disinfect the dog? The latest advice about the coronavirus and your pets,’ Science 

March 11: ‘A virus cure depends on rare lab mice, but there aren’t enough,’ Bloomberg Businessweek

“It’s a basic rule of medical research: Before you inject anything into humans, conduct experiments on animals—frequently mice—to determine whether treatments are safe and effective. In the race to develop a vaccine for the new coronavirus, however, your everyday mouse won’t do,” Bloomberg correspondent Bruce Einhorn wrote.

March 11: ‘CSU researchers are working full-bore on the mysteries of coronavirus — and a vaccine,’ Colorado Public Radio News

March 11: ‘As pressure for coronavirus vaccine mounts, scientists debate risks of accelerated testing,’ Reuters 

Reuters reported:

“Given the urgency to stem the spread of the new coronavirus, some drugmakers are moving straight into small-scale human tests, without waiting for the completion of such animal tests.

‘I understand the importance of accelerating timelines for vaccines in general, but from everything I know, this is not the vaccine to be doing it with,’ Dr Peter Hotez, dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, told Reuters.”

March 11: ‘The best hope for coronavirus treatment is an experimental drug that fizzled against Ebola,’ The Washington Post

March 11: ‘Repurposed drugs may help scientists fight the new coronavirus,’ Science News

March 10: ‘How close are biotechs to bringing a COVID-19 treatment to market?’ Benzinga

March 9: ‘LSU School of Veterinary Medicine producing coronavirus vaccines for testing,’ LOCAL 33/FOX 44

Researchers will test potential vaccines in mice.

March 9: ‘Labs rush to study coronavirus in transgenic animals — some are in short supply,’ Nature

March 9: ‘Why a coronavirus vaccine is more than a year away, despite medical researchers’ progress,’ USA Today

Preclinical tests involve research in animals to make sure a vaccine is safe. “If the vaccine protects in animal models, it can be made pure enough to be tested on humans,” Dr. Bart Haynes told USA TODAY.

March 7: ‘Texas baboon troop enlisted in humankind’s war on coronavirus,’ Bloomberg

“Animal research has played a critical role in virtually every medical advance over the last century,” said Matthew R. Bailey, president of the Foundation for Biomedical Research.

March 3: ‘Could GSK reject benefit COVID-19 patients?’ BioWorld

APN01 is a recombinant human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme produced by APEIRON Biologics that successfully blocked viral spread of SARS-CoV-2 and minimized lung injury when tested in laboratory mice. APN01 is now entering the clinical trial phase with COVID-19 patients in China.

March 2: ‘Opinion: Animal rights groups choose coronavirus over your safety,’ The Detroit News

The Detroit News published an opinion editorial written by FBR’s president on the importance of animal research in the search for a vaccine to control the coronavirus outbreak.

Feb. 19: ‘Coronavirus will be studied here in Louisiana at this Northshore primate center,’ WDSU

Feb. 16: ‘“A completely new culture of doing research.” Coronavirus outbreak changes how scientists communicate,’ Science

Feb. 11: ‘UW–Madison researchers lead efforts to understand, thwart new coronavirus,’ UW–Madison News

“We are working together to develop a plan to build out nonhuman primate models to test medical countermeasures such as vaccines and therapeutics,” said David O’Connor, professor at the UW School of Medicine and Public Health. “We want to make sure we are recapitulating the kind of clinical signs (of virus infection) that happen in people.”

Feb. 2: ‘With coronavirus spreading, now is not the time for restrictions on animal research,’ International Business Times

 

Basic Research

We would like to say a word about the role of research animals in basic research to understand how COVID-19 infects humans and animals. A basic research study in macaque monkeys revealed that monkeys who recovered from COVID-19 developed some immunity to the SARS-COV-2 virus and did not get reinfected with the virus. Further basic research studies will be conducted to confirm these results. Several other teams of researchers are studying how the SARS-COV-2 virus jumped from animals to humans by using data from studies of other coronaviruses like SARS and MERS in bats, civets, pangolins, and camels. Here are a few good articles on basic research to understand the zoonotic transmission of COVID-19 from animals to humans:

June 9: ‘COVID-19 produces lung inflammation in non-human primate experiments,’ News Medical

June 3: ‘Why coronavirus hits men harder: Sex hormones offer clues,’ Science

“Researchers haven’t established that androgens control TMPRSS2 in the lung—ground zero for SARS-CoV-2 infection—as they do in the prostate; studies in lung tissue and cells from mice and humans come to conflicting conclusions,” the article noted.

June 2: ‘Texas Biomed: Larger primates best model in COVID-19 vaccine study,’ Rivard Report

June 1: ‘Scientists find a way to infect mice with coronavirus. Here’s why that’s so important,’ ScienceAlert

May 29: ‘Pangolins may have incubated the novel coronavirus, gene study shows,’ CNN

May 29: ‘Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model,’ Science

May 28: ‘WSU is testing animals for COVID-19 to learn more about how the virus moves between species,’ The Pacific Northwest Inlander

May 28: ‘Data: Sunlight, heat kills coronavirus on surfaces,’ WWL-TV

These results come from the Tulane National Primate Research Center.

May 27: ‘New research points to bats as the origin of the novel coronavirus,’ BGR

May 27: ‘Mouse model mimics SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans,’ ScienceDaily

May 23: ‘Oregon research trial finds COVID-19 post-infection immunity in primates,’ The Corvallis Advocate

May 22: ‘Primate studies offer hope for future COVID-19 vaccine development,’ Infectious Disease Hub

May 22: ‘Oregon primate study gives hope for post-infection immunity to COVID-19,’ Oregon Public Broadcasting

May 21: ‘Monkeys in coronavirus tests “develop immunity” in two different studies,’ Daily Star

BREAKING NEWS: May 21: ‘Scientists made a mouse embryo that’s 4% human — the highest level of human cells in an animal yet,’ CNN

“Such chimeric mice would be very useful for studying COVID-19, which gravely impacts human, but barely affects mice,” State University of New York at Buffalo physiology and biophysics professor Jian Feng said.

May 20: ‘SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques,’ Science

May 19: ‘Wearing a mask can significantly reduce coronavirus transmission, study on hamsters claims,’ CNBC

May 14: ‘Millions of human cells grow in mouse embryo in 17 days,’ Futurity

“Further development of our technology could enable the generation of even larger quantities of specific types of mature human cells to allow us to create more effective mouse models to study diseases that gravely affect humans, such as malaria or COVID-19,” said professor Jian Feng.

May 14: ‘Building a mouse squad against COVID-19,’ Knowable Magazine

May 14: ‘Iowa mice key in race for COVID-19 treatments,’ The Des Moines Register

May 12: ‘Respiratory disease in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2,’ Nature

May 11: ‘The search for a Covid-19 research animal model,’ WIRED

Also, check out FBR’s white paper “The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Medical Research” (linked here).

May 8: ‘Pangolins hold clues to how COVID-19 began — and might end,’ HealthDay News

May 4: ‘Structure of COVID-19 virus hints at key to high infection rate,’ Cornell Chronicle

April 30: ‘Why you should avoid some cough syrups if you think you’ve got the coronavirus,’ Los Angeles Times

“In tests conducted at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, researchers found that when dextromethorphan was introduced into the cells of African green monkeys growing in petri dishes, the subsequent addition of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in more prolific viral growth,” the report said.

April 26: ‘Recombinant protein produces neutralizing COVID-19 antibodies in primate model,’ News Medical

April 24: ‘Vaping, opioid addiction accelerate coronavirus risks, says NIDA director,’ Kaiser Health News

“We know from animal experiments that vaping itself — not even giving any drugs with it — can produce inflammatory changes in the lung,” National Institute on Drug Abuse Director Nora Volkow told Kaiser Health News.

April 21: ‘COVID-19 infection model described in cynomolgus macaques,’ Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

April 18: ‘Is COVID-19 “reinfection” possible? What a study on monkeys shows,’ Gulf News

April 17: ‘From mice to monkeys, animals studied for coronavirus answers,’ Science

April 13: ‘How monkeys, ferrets, and horses are helping scientists fight COVID-19,’ Quartz

April 13: ‘Mice, hamsters, ferrets, monkeys. Which lab animals can help defeat the new coronavirus?’ Science

April 10: ‘Single-cell atlas of a non-human primate reveals new pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19,’ bioRxiv

March 26: ‘Significance of pangolin viruses in human pandemic remains murky,’ The New York Times

March 24: ‘Coronavirus could be a “chimera” of two different viruses, genome analysis suggests,’ Science Alert

March 18: ‘Macaque monkeys can’t become reinfected with COVID-19, small study suggests,’ Live Science

March 17: ‘COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic has a natural origin,’ ScienceDaily

March 16: ‘Which species transmit COVID-19 to humans? We’re still not sure,’ The Scientist

March 14: ‘These lab animals will help fight coronavirus,’ The New York Times

Researchers, such as those at The Jackson Laboratory in Maine, are breeding transgenic mice. Experts will test different strains of transgenic mice as well as a variety of other laboratory animals including nonhuman primates to determine which ones are susceptible to infection with the virus.

March 5: ‘From ferrets to mice and marmosets, labs scramble to find right animals for coronavirus studies,’ STAT

“Every day, it seems another company announces an attempt to make its own virus-fighting vials. But to test an experimental formulation, scientists can’t just jump from Petri dishes into people,” STAT News reporter Eric Boodman wrote. “They need to try it in critters first, to check that the stuff is safe and effective.”

Feb. 17: ‘Live coronavirus samples now at Tulane’s Primate Center on Northshore for research,’ WWL-TV (New Orleans)

The Tulane National Primate Research Center launched a research project to understand COVID-19 with animal models. The researchers are trying to understand how the disease spreads and progresses in nonhuman primates.

Keep checking this page and social media channels, as well as our weekly SmartBrief, for future updates on animal research in the fight against COVID-19.

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Photo credit: Foundation for Biomedical Research
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What is Animal Research?

Animal research is the study of animals for scientific and medical discovery. Research animals, also called lab animals, are bred specifically for research. Studying lab animals gives researchers important insights into how a disease works in the body. Once they understand how a disease works, they can begin to develop and test treatments with the help of animals.  

What is Animal Testing?

Animal testing is essential for understanding the safety and proper dosages of new medicines and treatments. If researchers find that a drug is safe and effective through animal testing, they can begin testing it in small groups of people and then larger groups of people. Both extensive human and animal testing is required by law before a drug can be approved. 

Why is it necessary?

Nearly every medicine, medical device, surgical procedure or therapy we have today has depended on animal testing and research. It’s one of the first steps in medical discovery. To understand how a disease works in the body, scientists study the disease in animals. Animal research gives them the knowledge they need to discover and create treatments to help both people and animals living with illnesses.

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