Animals Behind Top Drugs

Animal testing and research is behind nearly every prescription medicine.
 

Are you taking a prescription medicine?

Because animal research and testing were behind almost every prescription medicine available today.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires animal testing to ensure the safety of many drugs and devices.

1962 amendments to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act paved the way for the modern drug approval process, which involves preclinical tests on animals. The FDA can mandate drug sponsors or manufacturers to provide reports on “preclinical tests (including tests on animals) … adequate to justify the proposed clinical testing” or “primary data tabulations from animal or human studies,” according to federal law.

Click here to view regulations for submitting an Investigational New Drug Application with the FDA. “The investigator brochure is required to include information about the drug substance and formulation, pharmacological and toxicological effects of the drug in animals (and in humans, if known),” a 2010 FDA final rule says.

Animal testing is necessary for understanding the safety and proper dosages of new medicines and treatments. If researchers find that a drug is safe and effective through animal testing, they can begin testing it in small groups of people and then larger groups of people. Human and animal testing is required by law before a drug can be approved. However, for safety reasons the FDA requires animal testing before there can be clinical drug trials in people. It would be dangerous and extremely unethical for scientists to test drugs on humans before making sure they are safe. So, animal research and testing is an important first step. Learn more about which lab animals have contributed to the most common prescription drugs in the chart below.

What about the medications that vets prescribe for pets? Indeed, they were developed and tested with animals, too! Learn more about how dogs and cats have benefited from drugs used to treat anxiety, arthritis, heartworm, and more.

 

RankDrugDrug UsageAnimal Models
1Lisinoprilhigh blood pressure, heart failuredogs, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
2Atorvastatinhigh cholesteral and triglyceride levelsdogs, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
3Levothyroxineunderactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)cats, dogs, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, horses
4Metformin Hydrochloridehigh blood sugar, anti-diabetic medicationcats, dogs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, frogs
5Amlodipinehigh blood pressure, chest paincats, dogs, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits
6Metoprololhigh blood pressure, chest pain, heart failurecats, dogs, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, rhesus monkeys, rabbits, frogs
7Omeprazoleheartburn, a damaged esophagus, stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)cats, dogs, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
8Simvastatinhigh cholesterol and triglyceride levelsdogs, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
9Losartan Potassiumhigh blood pressure mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits, sheep
10Albuterolwheezing, shortness of breath, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasecats, dogs, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
11Gabapentinprevent and control seizures, relieve nerve pain dogs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
12Hydrochlorothiazidehigh blood pressure, fluid retentiondogs, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys
13Acetaminophen, Hydrocodone Bitartratepaincats, dogs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
14Sertraline Hydrochloridedepression, panic attacks, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, severe form of premenstrual syndromedogs, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
15Fluticasonepain, itching, swelling, inflammationguinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
16Montelukastallergies, asthmamice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, sheep
17Furosemide"water pill," fluid retention from heart failure, liver disease and kidney disease, high blood pressurecats, dogs, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
18Amoxicillininfections, stomach ulcerscats, dogs, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
19Pantoprazole Sodiumgastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), damaged esophagusdogs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
20Escitalopram Oxalatedepression, anxietydogs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
21Alprazolamanxiety and panic disordersmice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
22Prednisonearthritis, blood disorders, breathing problems, severe allergies, skin diseases, cancer, eye problems, immune system disorders, inflammationcats, dogs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits, horses
23Bupropiondepressiondogs, guinea pigs, mice, rats, monkeys, rabbits
24Pravastatin Sodiumhigh cholesteroldogs, hamsters, mice, rats, rabbits
25Acetaminophenminor aches and pains, fevercats, dogs, hamsters, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, zebrafish
Source: ClinCalc’s 2020 database of top drugs prescribed in the U.S. Pulled from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2007-2017. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Rockville, Maryland.

References:

  1. Lisinopril

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/019777s054lbl.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2016/208401Orig1s000PharmR.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/020702s056lbl.pdf

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1527-3466.1988.tb00375.x

  1. Atorvastatin

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/020702s056lbl.pdf

  1. Levothyroxine

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193522/

  1. Metformin Hydrochloride

https://packageinserts.bms.com/pi/pi_glucophage.pdf

https://www.bauschhealth.com/Portals/25/PDF/PI/Metformin-pi.pdf?ver=2019-11-13-141226-837

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2006/021748s002lbl.pdf

  1. Amlodipine

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2005/019787s037lbl.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2005/019787s038lbl.pdf

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/amlodipine

https://www.pfizer.ca/sites/default/files/201710/GD-amlodipine_PM_E_210151_23Oct2017.pdf

  1. Metoprolol

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2018/210428Orig1s000OtherR.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/019962s036lbl.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2018/210428Orig1s000PharmR.pdf

http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/45/8/896

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6707925/

  1. Omeprazole

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146093/

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/019810s096lbl.pdf

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11143926/

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2006/021850s000_PharmR.pdf

  1. Simvastatin

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/019766s076lbl.pdf

  1. Losartan Potassium

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/020386s058lbl.pdf

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3961

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/264/1/6

  1. Albuterol

https://www.fda.gov/media/91986/download

https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=498c7eff-645b-4a79-be12-afe9dbd5f3c4&type=display

  1. Gabapentin

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/020235s036,020882s022,021129s022lbl.pdf

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304395909007180

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7600909/

  1. Hydrochlorothiazide

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9608878/

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/040735s004,040770s003lbl.pdf

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/lt_rpts/tr357.pdf?utm_source=direct&utm_medium=prod&utm_campaign=ntpgolinks&utm_term=tr357

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1584836/

https://www.rxlist.com/capozide-drug.htm#side_effects

  1. Acetaminophen, Hydrocodone

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174210/

https://www.rxlist.com/vicodin-drug.htm#interactions

  1. Sertraline Hydrochloride

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/019839s070,020990s032lbl.pdf

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Sertraline#section=MeSH-Pharmacological-Classification

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655145/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-002-1034-1

  1. Fluticasone

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Fluticasone#section=Clinical-Laboratory-Methods

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/pediatric/Fluticasone-Flonase.pdf

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/284/1/222.abstract

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2014/205434Orig1s000PharmR.pdf

https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(14)03430-7/pdf

  1. Montelukast

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/020829s051_020830s052_021409s028lbl.pdf

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12406819/

  1. Furosemide

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/018667s036lbl.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/016273s066lbl.pdf

  1. Amoxicillin

https://www.fda.gov/media/71053/download

  1. Pantoprazole Sodium

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/209463s000lbl.pdf

https://www.sunpharma.com/australia-pi-download/50515/Pantoprazole

  1. Escitalopram Oxalate

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/021323s047lbl.pdf

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284117350_Effect_of_a_single_dose_of_escitalopram_on_serotonin_concentration_in_the_non-human_and_human_primate_brain

  1. Alprazolam

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/018276s044,021434s006lbl.pdf

https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/Final_Flualprazolam.pdf?ua=1

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-002-1019-0

http://europepmc.org/scanned?pageindex=2&articles=PMC1364833

https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/9658

  1. Prednisone

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/202020s000lbl.pdf

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2019.00393/full

https://www.wedgewoodpharmacy.com/learning-center/professional-monographs/prednisone-for-veterinary-use.html

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00498250903189454?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=ixen20

  1. Bupropion

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6406465/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1527-3458.2006.00178.x

  1. Pravastatin Sodium

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2011/019898Orig1s061.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/019898s062lbl.pdf

  1. Acetaminophen

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4520394/

https://www.health.state.mn.us/communities/environment/risk/docs/guidance/dwec/sumacetamin.pdf

https://europepmc.org/article/pmc/pmc4520394

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912877/

%d bloggers like this: